Thursday, December 30, 2010

need for constitution in this era

 You have spoked Chambi,
we real need a new constitution given diverse challenges we face now.
"A constitution is not simply a legal, technical document. It is primarily a political document. For it to have political legitimacy and deserve the obedience and loyalty of both the rulers and the ruled, it must embody the national consensus at the particular time...Constitutions which do not embody a national consensus do not command political legitimacy. They are more or less imposed and no one cares about them - neither the rulers nor the ruled " - A Constitution Lawyer on 'Let the People Speak: Tanzania Down the Road to Neo-Liberalism'
by Chambi Chachage.








EO 12958 DECL: 09/27/2016





Classified By: Charge d’Affaires D. Purnell Delly for reasons 1.4(b),(d) and (e).

¶1. (C) According to a senior Swiss diplomat, the shipment of uranium through Dar es Salaam is common knowledge to two Swiss shipping companies. Hans Peter Schoni, Counsellor at the Embassy of Switzerland in Tanzania, referred to the allegations of uranium from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) passing through Zambia and Tanzania en route to Iran, but did not attribute to the shipping companies any opinion of the source or destination of the alleged uranium. Poloff pointed out that the reports were unsubstantiated, but Schoni repeated that transport of uranium is common knowledge to the two companies, though no one at either company would admit it in writing. XXXXXXXXXXXX are both based in Geneva and conduct verification and inspection work in Tanzania.

¶2. (C) Mission has shared this information with all relevant agencies at post which were unable to substantiate this or any other such reports of uranium shipments. Nevertheless, given the potential significance of such allegations we believe it is important to report nonetheless. DELLY







EO 12958 DECL: 07/23/2012




Classified By: D. Purnell Delly, Deputy Chief of Mission, for reasons 1 .4(b and d).

¶1. (C) SUMMARY. Tanzania’s Prevention of Corruption Bureau

(PCB) has never successfully prosecuted a high-level

corruption case involving either the private or public

sector. On July 14, the Director General of the PCB, Edward

Hoseah, assured the DCM that the PCB was now prepared to

prosecute a milestone corruption case: the U.K.-Tanzanian BAE

radar deal. Beyond plans to prosecute the BAE case, Hoseah

painted a mixed picture regarding the Government of

Tanzania’s (GOT’s) progress toward addressing the country’s

endemic corruption problem. On one hand, Hoseah highlighted

recent legal reforms and the increasing willingness of both

Parliament and press to level corruption charges against the

government. On the other hand, he noted the unabated

corruption in Zanzibar, weak capacity of his bureau, and

President Kikwete’s reluctance to implicate former President

Benjamin Mkapa or members of Mkapa’s inner circle in

corruption scandals. Finally, Hoseah reiterated deep concern

about his personal safety, explaining that he frequently

received threatening letters. In the event of increasing

threats to his life, Hoseah said he would not hesitate to

seek refuge in another country. END SUMMARY.

PCB: Ready to Prosecute the BAE Radar Deal


¶2. (C) Edward Hoseah, Director General of the Prevention of

Corruption Bureau (PCB) told the DCM that the PCB was almost

finished with its investigation of the U.K.- Tanzanian BAE

radar deal and that it intended to prosecute the case. “We

are focused on the 31 percent commission paid to BAE. We

understand that businessmen need commissions but the question

is whether 31 percent is lawful or not,” Hoseah said. He

called the deal “dirty” and said it involved officials from

the Ministry of Defence and at least one or two senior level

military officers.

¶3. (C) Hoseah said that the two primary suspects, XXXXXXXXXXXX and Shailesh Vithlani, CEO of

Merlin International, were currently out of the country but

that when they returned the GOT would begin to prosecute. “I

have obtained President Kikwete’s support to prosecute the

culprits once they return to Tanzania,” he said, stressing

that prosecution of the case would mark an important

milestone in the PCB’s struggle. “The real signal of the

GOT’s political commitment will be when we take this radar

case to court,” Hoseah said.

¶4. (C) Note: Shailesh Vithlani is a British citizen who

reportedly grew up in Tanzania. He heads Merlin

International, a Dar es Salaam based company. Merlin

International has been implicated as the agent for Britain’s

BAE Systems which sold a USD 40 million military radar system

to the GOT in 2002. Beyond the BAE radar deal, Merlin has

been linked in the media to a range of other high profile

government deals including the sale of a Gulfstream

presidential jet to former President Benjamin Mkapa.

According to a July 13 report in This Day, a local newspaper,

at the time of the BAE deal, Vithlani’s local partner was

Tanil Somaiya of Shivacom Tanzania Ltd.

Promising Signs on Anti-Corruption Front: Legal Reform...

--------------------------------------------- ------------

¶5. (C) In addition to the possible prosecution of the BAE

radar case, Hoseah emphasized that there were other promising

signs in Tanzania’s fight against corruption. First, he

noted that as of July 1 the Anti-Corruption bill had become

fully operational, laying the legal groundwork to accelerate

the prosecution of corruption. He said that the GOT had

almost finalized its “whistle blowers” legislation and that

the relationship between the PCB and the Director of Public

Prosecution (DPP) had improved. “I have a good working

relationship with the new DPP and he appears serious about

prosecuting corruption.” XXXXXXXXXXXX

Stronger Parliament, Press, and Public Support

--------------------------------------------- -

¶6. (C) A second promising sign regarding anti-corruption

efforts which Hoseah stressed was increased support within

the Parliament, press and the general public. “Parliament is

now our ally. Members of Parliament are no longer just

spectators; they are starting to ask the tough questions to

unveil corruption schemes,” Hoseah said. He explained that

the media was also making a crucial contribution, showing

politicians that they could not hide: “The press has started

to bring allegations against former President Mkapa. This

signals to all politicians that no one is immune.” Awareness

is growing among the general public too, Hoseah noted, as

evidenced by the increased trust in the PCB and the decline

of negative news articles about the PCB and its staff.

Initiatives Stemming from the UNCAC


¶7. (C) Finally, Hoseah noted Tanzania’s participation in the

UN Convention Against Corruption as another reason for

optimism on the anti-corruption front. As a signatory to the

UNCAC, Tanzania must not only follow international standards,

but will take part in several anti-corruption initiatives in

the near future. For example, Tanzania will be subject to a

peer review and a gap analysis on its compliance with the


Troubling Signs on Anti-Corruption: Impunity at the Top....

--------------------------------------------- ----------

¶8. (C) Hoseah then turned to his concerns regarding

Tanzania’s anti-corruption struggle. He noted that President

Kikwete does not appear comfortable letting the law handle

corruption cases which might implicate top level officials.

According to Hoseah, President Kikwete is hesitant to pursue

cases which may implicate former President Benjamin Mkapa:

“Kikwete is soft on Mkapa. He does not want to set a

precedent by going after his predecessor.”

¶9. (C) Referring to the widespread rumors of corruption

within the Bank of Tanzania (Ref B), Hoseah remarked that

XXXXXXXXXXXX In Hoseah’s view, Kikwete’s recent appointment of three new

deputy BOT governors was XXXXXXXXXXXX. The DCM

remarked that XXXXXXXXXXXX responses to allegations XXXXXXXXXXXX were opaque and even projected a

sense of impunity. “Your perception is correct,” Hoseah

responded, adding, “there is a sense of impunity with XXXXXXXXXXXX because he and XXXXXXXXXXXX are so closely intertwined. Kikwete

would find it very difficult to fire him.”

Complacency on Zanzibar...


¶10. (C) The ongoing, if not accelerating, level of corruption

on Zanzibar is another cause for pessimism in Tanzania’s

fight against corruption. While establishment of Tanzania’s

Financial Intelligence Unit (FIU) would indeed force changes

on Zanzibar in the long term, Hoseah admitted that he did not

believe Zanzibar’s current leadership was committed to

fighting corruption. With a “free port” and government

officials routinely on the payroll of foreign investors,

Zanzibar is rife with corruption, Hoseah emphasized. With

the momentum of anti-corruption efforts on the Mainland,

Zanzibar will have to follow suit, Hoseah said. He added,

however, that “in the short term, Zanzibar’s President faces

the end of his term and it appears that there is actually an

acceleration of corruption through acquisition of land and

other assets.”

Continuing Capacity Constraints...


¶11. (C) Hoseah raised the PCB’s lack of capacity as another

key challenge to Tanzania’s anti-corruption campaign. He

stressed that support from the Millennium Challenge Account

(MCA) Threshold Program has assisted the PCB immensely with

training prosecutors and investigators. Still, institutional

capacity at the PCB is weak and additional capacity building

is needed. One area which Hoseah specified for additional

training was intelligence or evidence gathering.

“Cooperation among law enforcement agencies is still limited

and we need to improve our intelligence capabilities,”

Hoseah told the DCM.

Threat of Stepping on the Wrong Toes


¶12. (C) At the end of the meeting, Hoseah reiterated concern

for his personal security (Ref A), saying he believed that

his life may be in danger. He told the DCM that he had

received threatening text messages and letters and was

reminded everyday that he was fighting the “rich and

powerful.” While Hoseah maintained that he was not scared to

do his job, he said that he could not be seen as

“uncompromising.” Toward the end of the meeting, he said

quietly to the DCM, “If you attend meetings of the

‘inner-circle,’ people want you to feel as if they have put

you there. If they see that you are uncompromising, there is

a risk.” Finally, he made clear that if the threat to his

life reached a certain point, he would flee the country.

Comment: PCB’s List of Untouchables: Growing?

--------------------------------------------- --

¶13. (C) In our January 2007 meeting with Hoseah (Ref A), he

said his primary goal as the newly appointed Director General

of the Prevention of Corruption Bureau would be to prosecute

“big fish.” He told us point blank, however, that cases

against the Prime Minister or President were off the table.

Now, he has revealed that former President Benjamin Mkapa and

certain members of Mkapa’s inner circle may also be

untouchable, many of whom have ministerial or sub-ministerial

posts in Kikwete’s government. Thus, while President

Kikwete’s talk against corruption might be tough, he is

clearly treading carefully and the jury remains out on his

commitment to tackling high-level corruption.

¶14. (C) Even if the Kikwete administration does prosecute

the BAE case, it is important to note that the U.K. Serious

Fraud Office conducted the lion’s share of the investigation.

According to Hoseah, after the Fraud Office confronted the

GOT with evidence, PCB officials were invited to spend one

month in London working with the Serious Fraud Office to

finalize the case. Therefore, although the GOT may

ultimately point to BAE as a landmark case reflecting

commitment to combating corruption, the decision to prosecute

may actually reflect the notoriety of the case in the UK, its

notoriety and prominent press play here, and most

importantly, the fact that a fully developed case file,

brimming with detailed evidence, was presented by UK

investigators to the Prevention of Corruption Bureau. In

short, to the cynical eye, the GOT may have little recourse

other than to prosecute. END COMMENT.


Registration to ITC's Market Analysis Tools:

Registration to ITC's Market Analysis Tools:

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Thanks to financial contributions from ITC's Global Trust Fund and the World Bank, as of the 1st January 2008, all users from developing countries and territories may access the ITC's market analysis tools free of charge.

Users from developing countries can access the tools free of charge until 31 December 2010.

While users from developed countries can register to get trial access for one week. Beyond that trial period, users wishing to subscribe should fill out the MAT Institutional License Order Form and return it by email at or by fax to +4122 730 05 77.

Wednesday, December 29, 2010

Mozambican leader linked to drug trafficking, money laundering, purchase commission- Wikileaks

Mozambican leader linked to drug trafficking, money laundering, purchase commission- Wikileaks

December 10th, 2010 in News, Society

APA-Maputo(Mozambique) Mozambican president Armando Emilio Guebuza received a personal commission of between US$35 and US$50 million for his part on the negotiations leading to the purchase of the Cahora Bassa hydroelectric dam from Portugal, according to U.S. diplomatic cables published by WikiLeaks, while linking Guebuza to a drug trafficking and money laundering racket.

The cables are part of a trove of 250,000 classified US State Department documents obtained by WikiLeaks and published online.

Guebuza was instrumental in negotiations that culminated in the 2007 purchase of Cahora Bassa Hydroelectric Dam (HCB) from the Portuguese Government for US$950 million, and US$700 million of this was paid by a private Consortium of banks.

The cables said the money from the banks was arranged by Guebuza which resulted in him getting the commission.

The Mozambican cables prepared by Todd Chapman, then charge d’affairsn are based on information from a source described by the diplomat as having “known and befriended for the past twenty years”.

The source is further cited in Chapman’s cables describing Guebuza as a “vicious scorpion who will sting you."

“Guebuza’s business interests in Mozambique are legion. They include stakes in Mocambique Gestores (MG), Maputo Port Development Company (MPDC) which runs Maputo Port, Focus 21, Navique, Vodacom, and SASOL.

“Guebuza also has a share in Maputo Corridor Logistics Initiative (MCLI) which controls the toll road from Maputo to South Africa, according to the source,” according to the cables.

The cables also link Guebuza and former president Joaquim Chissano to a drug trafficking and money laundering racket.

It makes links between Guebuza, Chissano and Mohamed Bashir Suleman owner of MBS business group, who was in June, this year, listed by the US government as a drug kingpin.

The cables also noted the two leaders had ‘multiple contacts’ with Suleman who contributed heavily to the ruling Frelimo campaigns by backing ‘former President Joaquim Chissano and current President Armando Guebuza.’

US spokesman, Tobias Bradford, told reporters in Maputo, late Thursday, that the US government does not comment on classified information.

He, however, said his government had communicated with the Mozambican government on its concern over drug trafficking across the southern African country.

It was not immediately possible to get comment from the Mozambican government as three calls to the Prime Minister’s office were not answered on Friday.


Tuesday, December 28, 2010

PhD Scholarship

Ph.D. Position - Plant Ecology Department, University of Bayreuth

The department of Plant Ecology, University of Bayreuth is currently seeking to fill an open Ph.D. position within the project “Kilimanjaro ecosystems under global change: Linking biodiversity, biotic interactions and biogeochemical ecosystem processes”, funded by the German Science Foundation (DFG) for a period of three years. The field research is based on Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania and addresses “Biodiversity of the Mt. Kilimanjaro region relative to patterns in water and carbon flux controls – differentiation along climate gradients and with land use”. (

The main research objective is to define the pathways for carbon and water exchange and their relative capacities for 14 ecosystem types along the gradient from savanna to alpine scrub on Mt. Kilimanjaro.

The project start date is October 2010.

The ideal candidate should have:

1. M.Sc. Degree (or equivalent) in Plant Ecology or a related discipline.

2. A strong background in plant water relations and ecosystem CO2 fluxes.

3. Fluency in English.

4. An ability to work under harsh field conditions, including high altitudes (up to 4,500 m a.s.l.) and working at night.

5. Willingness to stay in Tanzania for a considerable part of the project period.

6. High motivation and ability to fit into a team.

Interested persons should contact

Dr. Manoko

Unv. of Dar es salaam.

Department of Botany

2 floor R 204

Applicants should submit:

1. A cover letter and a statement of interest (no more than 2 pages in length).

2. Curriculum vitae.

3. Contacts of two referees.

Applicants will be selected on the basis of the strength of academic course work, research and teamwork experience.

Monday, December 27, 2010

Switching Viewpoints: Africa Is Not a Victim of Nature; It Is a Victor of Nature.

Switching Viewpoints: Africa Is Not a Victim of Nature; It Is a Victor of Nature.

In the new Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI), developed by Oxford University to replace the UN's Human Poverty Index, African countries were again ranked as the poorest of the poor.

In that Index, the ten poorest countries in the world, starting from the poorest were: (1) Niger, (2) Ethiopia, (3) Mali, (4) Central African Republic, (5) Burundi, (6) Liberia, (7) Burkina Faso, (8) Guinea, (9) Sierra Leone, and (10) Rwanda. This takes us back to the age-old question: Will Africa's poverty ever be eliminated?

In a recent book, I argue that poverty in Africa will be eradicated only if the world takes radically different approaches. A good start for doing so would be to see Africa for what it really is. It is not a victim of nature that has to beg for handouts to survive but a victor of nature that can thrive by learning how to create value and wealth using its abundant natural resources.

Every African country has strengths that it can exploit to create wealth. To see these strengths and learn how to use them, people have to change their mentality of Africa. I will use the two poorest countries in the world--Niger and Ethiopia--to illustrate the stacking differences between the two mentalities and why one--Africa as victim of nature--is very wrong for Africa.

I start with Niger. When one uses the victim of nature lens, one sees Niger as a landlocked African country, 80% of which is desert (the Sahara), prone to droughts, grasshopper invasions, and full of disease. These conditions would then explain why, according to the MPI, Niger is the poorest country in the world with 92.7% of it citizens living in poverty, 65.9% on $1.25 or less a day, and 89.5% are deprived of sanitation. This would then suggest that more handouts of food, medicines, etc would help the country.

A victor of nature mentality would see things differently. Although 80% of the country is desert, the remaining 20% has the Niger River, Africa's third largest, flowing through it, and this portion is larger than North and South Korea combined, or all of the United Kingdom. And all of that land for only 16 million people compared to 74 million for the Koreas and 62 million for the United Kingdom. And that 80% that is desert? Well, a very small fraction of it has enough solar energy potential to supply all the electrical energy needs of the European Union. Besides, a good part of the 80% desert can be reclaimed by planting trees.

More important, the country is loaded with natural resources such as gold, oil, uranium, coal, iron ore, tin phosphates, gypsum, salt and molybdenum despite only superficial exploration. Of these, only uranium has been exploited considerably. Most of the uranium is mined by French firms and exported to France, Niger's former colonial master, where more than 70% of the country's electricity is produced using uranium.

Imagine what would have happened if a program had been put in place for Nigeriens to learn how to add value to their natural resources and export more finished products. Imagine how much of the desert would be reclaimed if each Nigerien planted a tree a year. Dropping surplus white flour or corn on Niger annually may feed some hungry children in the short term but does not lift Nigeriens out of poverty. Teaching them how to create wealth using their abundant natural will.

For Case #2, Ethiopia, I start in India. According to Professor Jeffrey Sachs, "India is a civilization of great river systems and large-scale irrigation, thanks to the Himalayan snowmelt and glacier melt and the annual monsoon rains. Africa is a continent of rain-fed (non-irrigation) agriculture." Thus, when the rains do not come, victims of geography like Ethiopia have to turn to the West for help.

What is remarkable is that, since 2000, Indian firms have been spending billions of dollars on hundreds of thousands of hectares of arable African land, including some $1.5 billion spent by 80 different Indian firms on Ethiopian land to grow rice, lentils, and other foods to export back to India and other countries.

Somehow India, which has been blessed with natural irrigation systems, has been buying land in Ethiopia, which is not as blessed, to grow water-hogging crops such as rice and export them to India and elsewhere. The question is, why couldn't Ethiopia grow these foods, feed its own people, and export the rest to India and other countries, creating jobs and wealth for Ethiopians in the process?

With at least 80 million people living in Ethiopia, it is difficult to believe that one could not find a few hundred people out of these millions or the hundreds of thousands of Ethiopians living abroad, who are capable and willing to learn how to run large-scale farms. Ethiopia is blessed with enough land and hardworking people to feed itself and many other countries. It also has many other natural resources including gold, platinum, copper, potash, natural gas, and hydroelectric power potential. And don't forget the high elevations that can be used as training venues for athletes, especially long distance runners.

There is no reason why Niger and Ethiopia should be the two poorest counties in the world. Africa is not a victim of nature. It is a victor of nature that should get to work and create wealth using its abundant resources. Fortunately for Africa, China is willing to work with Niger and other African countries to help them do what the West has failed to do since it went to Africa for slaves: Help Africa lift itself out of poverty.

Allan Afuah is Associate Professor of Strategy at the Stephen M. Ross School of Business at the University of Michigan. Dr. Afuah's latest book is The African Paradox: Is China the Solution?

Thursday, December 23, 2010

The Climate Change and African Political Stability (CCAPS) program at

The Climate Change and African Political Stability (CCAPS) program at

the Robert S. Strauss Center for International Security and Law is

issuing its first call for papers on its project theme, open

exclusively to scholars from and based in Africa. The Call for Papers

is co-sponsored by the Strauss Center, the Institute for Security

Studies, and the Pew Center on Global Climate Change.

Mission and Topic: The goal of the Call for Papers is to publish a

number of working papers on the links between climate change and

security in Africa. The Call for Papers seeks to foster innovative

African scholarship on these issues and foster a conversation between

academics, practitioners, and policymakers in Africa, the United

States, and the international community. Given its physical exposure

and the immense challenges of adaptation, Africa is widely understood

to be one of the continents most vulnerable to climate change. These

effects are not likely to be uniformly distributed, nor are the

potential consequences clearly understood. This Call for Papers seeks

contributions that further global understanding of the likely location

of vulnerabilities in Africa, the potential impacts of climate change

on Africa's political stability or security, and/or strategies for

addressing these challenges. The Call for Papers is open to

submissions from all disciplines. The paper can have a continental

focus, a regional focus, a country focus, a local sub-national focus,

or a mix of these. The review committee prefers submissions that will

be supported by case study research.

Compensation: Up to three papers will receive a research stipend for

case study or other field research, as well as travel support to

attend an international conference. The author of the first-place

paper will receive a $5,000 research stipend and up to $3,000 to

attend an international conference. Authors of the second-and third-

place papers will each receive a $2,500 research stipend and up to

$3,000 to attend an international conference. In the event of a co-

authored paper, the stipend will be split equally among authors, and

the lead author will be eligible for the conference travel support. A

condition for receipt of the research stipend is application to an

international conference. If the author is accepted to the

international conference, the author must make his/her own travel

arrangements and will be reimbursed for travel costs up to $3,000. The

research stipend will be issued upon the author's completion of the

publication-ready version of the working paper.

Publication: The Strauss Center will have the prerogative to publish

the winning papers as part of the CCAPS program's Working Paper

Series, with an intended publishing date of August 2011. All

publishing is subject to the review and editing process. Authors must

be available by e-mail and willing to edit their manuscript with the

Strauss Center team before publication. After the paper is published

in the CCAPS Working Paper Series, the author may publish the paper in

journals or other venues upon notification to the Strauss Center.

Prior to publication in the CCAPS Working Paper Series in August 2011,

the paper cannot appear in print elsewhere, but it may be under review

elsewhere. If the paper is published elsewhere after August 2011, the

author is required to include the following attribution statement:

"The Robert S. Strauss Center for International Security and Law

contributed greatly to the production of this paper. A version of this

paper was previously published as part of the Strauss Center'sWorking

Paper Series on Climate Change and African Political Stability. This

material is based upon work supported by, or in part by, the U. S.

Army Research Laboratory and the U. S. Army Research Office under

contract/grant number W911NF-09-1-0077."

Eligibility: Contributors must be from Africa and be currently based

in Africa to be eligible for this Call for Papers. Contributors are

not required to have a PhD to submit a paper. Preference will be given

to authors from economically disadvantaged institutions and countries

within Africa. The submitted paper cannot be previously published. The

paper can be under review elsewhere, but cannot appear in print

elsewhere prior to August 31, 2011.

Deadline for Submission: Midnight, Greenwich Mean Time, January 31,


Submission Guidelines: The paper and the author's curriculum vitae

must be submitted electronically to by the

submission deadline. The paper should be no longer than 10,000 words

including notes and bibliography. The paper must be a finished paper.

The paper must be original work. Any work found to be plagiarized

would result in the contributor's stipend being canceled and travel

assistance rescinded.

Judging Process and Announcement of Recipients: The papers will be

judged by a panel of experts from the University of Texas at Austin

and leading academic institutions and think tanks in the United States

and Africa. Recipients will be notified on March 1, 2011.

Sponsoring Entities: The Robert S. Strauss Center for International

Security and Law at the University of Texas at Austin is a nonpartisan

research center that engages the best minds in academia, government,

and the private sector to develop unique, policy-relevant solutions to

complex global challenges. The Strauss Center's program on Climate

Change and African Political Stability conducts research in three core

areas, seeking to investigate where and how climate change poses

threats to stability in Africa, identify strategies to support

accountable and effective governance in Africa, and evaluate the

effectiveness of international aid to help African societies adapt to

climate change.

The Institute for Security Studies is a pan-African applied policy

research institute headquartered in Pretoria, South Africa with

offices in Cape Town, South Africa; Nairobi, Kenya; and Addis Ababa,

Ethiopia. ISS seeks to mainstream human security perspectives into

public policy processes and to influence decision makers within Africa

and beyond by providing timely, empirical research and contextual

analysis of relevant human security issues to policy makers, area

specialists, advocacy groups, and the media.

The Pew Center on Global Climate Change is a non-profit, non-partisan,

and independent organization established by the Pew Charitable Trusts

to bring a new cooperative approach and critical scientific, economic,

and technological expertise to the global climate change debate. The

Pew Center informs this debate through wide-ranging analyses that add

new facts and perspectives in four areas: domestic and international

policy, economics, environment, and solutions.

More Information: For more information, please contact the CCAPS

program at Climate Change and African

Political Stability Program, Robert S. Strauss Center for

International Security and Law, The University of Texas at Austin,

2315 Red River Street, P.O. Box Y, Austin, Texas 78713, USA Phone:

+1-512-471-6267, Fax: +1-512-471-6961


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Wishing you marry X'mass and good new year

wish you Happy European Christmas

 The finest Christmas gift is not the one that cost the most money, but the one that carries the most love

Christmas takes place in the heart. It is opening our hearts to others, giving of our time and energy to others, forgiving when needed, and accepting others as they are, in our hearts. It's doing for others what Jesus did for us. It's letting God's Spirit reign in our heart.

Wednesday, December 22, 2010

Fighting corruption at Higher learning Institution Orgabization: Challenges and opportunities

Many Students organizations in Tanzania have been at the forefront in addressing issues of Corruption in the Country. However, corruption has been reported in several students organizations . It is just two weeks ago that student organization in my institution conducted its election for president in Mbeya Campus. The election commission committee did its possible measure to ensure that election is free and fair.

 What has forced me to write this,  is that during election process. some of those who were aspiring to contest for the post, used money power to ensure that they get elected. Thanks to the peoples power that they punished them by just voting against them. When election for president was over, those who failed in election tried their best level to disagree with peoples power but their struggle ended in vein. The looser didnot end their as one of them tried to bribe the Institution President who is also a president for Dar es salaam Campus to create a post for him in Mbeya Campus, He managed to bribe him and he was appointed as Depute Prime Minister to serve as Prime Minister at Mbeya Campus. I am told that he paid him a lots of money to ensure that he get the post.
Come to time for confirmation by all students again people's power was there to disagree with the Institute President appointment and this time they were able even to quote some paragraph in the students organization constitution under which it is not written anywhere in the constitution that there will be Depute Prime Minister.
Lessons learned from this election
1. It does not matter where you take the monkey, it will still jump. As lecturer in Development studies, I have been at the forefront to educate my students on strategies they can use to get rid of corrupt leader.  Corrruption is now part and parcel of our life whether we like or not. it is every where and we should not expect clean leaders in future and this has been proved by poor governance and corruption in students organizations.
2. Charit begin at home, lets first use our time to clean our house before we start helping our fellow to clean their own. If we dont real put more effort in fighting against corruption, dont expect to see free corrupt future generation.
3. If we real have people who understand the value of their votes then we can progress. My students have shown good example by voting against corrupt people in their government. lets us all take this example in every kind of election we conduct.
 We should not expect good Accountant and Procurement officers if the students in the field are corrupt. My students please keep on practicing what i have been preaching to you and remember that no one is going to be left on the burden of corruption we take or receive. it is going to affect both the present and future generation.
Lastly, lets all  practice what we preach. but then lets preach on good practices and practice it at every stage.
God bless us, bless Tanzania Youth and May we all work towards free corrupt Institutions and governments.
"It can be done lets all of us play our part"
Posted by Elimeleck Parmena Rasirasi Akyoo.

Dr Kusum Gopal: Why we are bakward

Dr Kusum Gopal: Why we are bakward

By Edwin Agola

16th December 2010EmailPrintComments

Dr Kusum GopalAn expert, with a grounding in gender issues, health, social development Dr Kusum Gopal, shares some of her insights on various topics including among reduction of poverty and political conflicts in Africa.

The expert who has served in various UN agencies as UNESCO, UNICEF, UNDAW says Tanzania – as indeed elsewhere in the world, a common feature that beleaguers post-colonial countries is the failure of its people being able to make a livelihood, have food, good diety and the conspicuous absence of indispensable civic facilities such as clean water.

She however says, while Tanzania is economically poor it is rich in social terms and has the spirit of egalitarianism stressing that the country's moral fibre of democracy is indigenous and deeply rooted. Excerpts...

QUESTION. What in your view are the most important criteria in understanding a country such as Tanzania?

ANSWER. Well, knowing the history in all its facets is paramount to connecting with how ordinary people feel and think in any country or region. But knowing history is not to read colonial or facetious write-ups. We need to share with people of the country, the many dimensions of their country’s experiences going back three hundred years or more, and with that, their sense of time and space. For example in Tanzania, indeed for east Africa we need to keep in mind Swahili time and space.

That is, in addition to the brutality of the colonial experience, to learn also about the pre-colonial history of Africa – in a wider sense-because that spans millennia and we find in that it is syncretistic – much like the ancient cultures of the Indian subcontinent.

That is to say people co-existed with each other , adopted each other’s beliefs and, race, or a distinct ‘ethnic’ identity of tribe were not important- but mbeyu or clan, not kabila was important as, most certainly, indeed, language. To illustrate inter-marriages between different groups of people have taken place for millennia --and continue to happen. There are also powerful democratic and egalitarian traditions that present in ordinary every day interactions. This is also important.

Thus, when Mwalimu Nyerere stated that all Tanzanians are one people – he was in fact invoking the pre-colonial understanding of what it means to be an African- umoja, hekima na amani. And, that has firmly rooted Tanzania on the path of peace as people seek to avoid conflict in everyday interactions-a model for so many African countries and indeed, for the world also in some respects.

Q. In Africa today we have so many civil wars that have caused genocides and still continue happening. Any comment on this?

A. Yes, land is valuable commodity as is water and natural resources. One famous writer – Wole Soyinka observes that in addition to the exploitation of peoples by colonialism, the ill-advised partition of Africa is at the heart of current civil wars, struggle for lands, water and other natural resources have caused immeasurable trauma and, hunger. And, he advocates dialogues between all warring factions to banish the pernicious legacies and bring peace as intolerance of people is antithesis to the African way of being.

Also, other great leaders such as Bishop Tutu and Nelson Mandela have spoken about indigenous cultural principles that underlie acceptance-The term ubuntu understood by most Africans, is the essence of being human or being a person. That is, every human being’s humanity is caught up and is inextricably bound up in another’s... to be open and available to others, affirming of others.

Thus, one cannot feel threatened that others are able and good, for he or she has a proper self-assurance that comes from knowing that he or she belongs in a greater whole and is humiliated or diminished, when others are tortured or oppressed. Indeed, many parts of the world have much to learn from such ancient wisdom from Africa- “I am because we are” – and this is an entry point for dialogue.

History influences in as much as it is influenced by it--it is important to respect that human beings everywhere in the world are in culture- always. And, how any of us seek to learn and understand culture or cultures in these specific contexts is critical.

We need to not just accept but, also respect what is important to people – women, men, boys and girls belonging to different traditions, what they value and why they value what they do. It is necessary corollary to assume that the local populations, not the outsiders are experts in their own social and cultural environment. Societies and cultures are best understood holistically.

All societies are systematic, rational and, we need to value the integrity and worthiness of all human societies. That is also why cultures should never be viewed as barriers but always seen as enabling and contains the power to transform the lives of people through dialogues and discussions.

Q. We are now on Mkukuta II as the government is aware that what seriously afflicts our nation’s wellbeing is poverty. What do you have to say on this?

A. Mkukuta II will necessarily offer valuable lessons. To me the most pressing problem in the developing world is livelihood. Each morning making a livelihood is important and to be unable to do so and earn money keeping one’s dignity and respect is an anxiety that is impossible to measure – because it leads to an acute loss of confidence and then without money people are forced to resort to survival strategies that cause harm to themselves and their families.

I would say that in Tanzania – as indeed, in several countries of the Indian subcontinent and elsewhere a common feature that beleaguers post-colonial countries is the insufficient indeed, adversity lack of being able to make a livelihood, shortage of food, poor nutrition and the add-ons—the conspicuous absence of indispensable civic facilities such as water on tap – as basic hygiene and cleanliness of the environment are paramount considerations-for human dignity as indeed, social development to take place effectively.

We see repeated failures in structural re-adjustments, in various anti poverty policies as indeed, in the promotion of wealth production which increases impoverishment because we fail to grasp the social and cultural realities that exist in each society which influence oral and written traditions.

Human beings are always in culture and all human beings are indivisible and interdependent – much good can come from dialogues between policy making and cultural prerogatives – be they oral or written.

Q. You speak of poverty of health. What do you mean?

A. In several countries of the Indian sub-continent as also India, despite the globalization and Information Technology, economic poverty is severe.

We also have high rates of anaemia, helminthic infections, reproductive tract infections, maternal mortality and many other problems that afflict women and men here. There is a general lack of knowledge of the body even shame – and women and girls hide within themselves – and find it extremely hard to discuss or talk about their health problems. For example in India, in general, women’s patience to prolepsis, lesions, miscarriages and continence is marked.

Women are reluctant to report on odorous vaginal discharges, menstrual or sexual problems. In Vietnam, in contrast, women are much more open, for example, there are sixty common terms for vaginal discharges. These are important indicators on how women and men relate to each other in various cultures- and constitute a facet of human poverty that needs to be recognized.

Here, we need to bear in mind the Human Development Report 1997 that states that poverty needs to be conceptualized as ‘human poverty’ and it needs to be understood multi-dimensionally. According to this human rights based perspective the poor are those who are deprived of essential human needs and entitlements, resources and, opportunities such as education. It includes not just economic poverty but also, social and political exclusion.

Thus while Tanzania is economically poor, it is sophisticated and rich in social terms– the spirit of egalitarianism is particularly marked – people understand each other be it the President or the farmer: the moral fibre of democracy is indigenous and deeply rooted. It is indeed an enviable situation that cannot be said for most countries of the world I would imagine.

Also, programmes on democratization should take note of this and work with these givens to succeed. And, that is why there are tremendous potentialities for success to overcome poverty because dialogues would be fruitful.

Also, there is a marked respect for the old and children; people greet each other and strangers are also embraced into the community, regardless of what they look like or where they come from.

While in the affluent countries, people evade eye contact and pass by without speaking on a daily basis; strangers are to be avoided at all costs – it is about closed enclaves – and quite provincial in that sense. Also, there are many people who lead lonely lives shopping in supermarkets and go home only to watch television. This is particularly marked among the old people.

The mark of a sophisticated culture is respect of all people and acceptance of all people, regardless of colour, creed, age and so forth. That is why the ancient cultures such as those of the Indian sub-continent, Egypt, and certainly, the cultures of the African continent have a big advantage in this respect.

As one travels through this country, young girls and women of all ages also dress as they wish and do not bother about size or shapes- and they walk confidently and appear to love their bodies – and that is extremely instructive – because what is being celebrated is to be female, no matter what. And, I find women here, in that respect have much to teach the world.

Elsewhere including India – size zero is an obsession and so many girls starve themselves wanting to look like this or that Bollywood or Hollywood star: plastic surgery and the problems of bulimia and self-hate accompany such developments which cannot in the end make them love themselves.

All these issues need to be included in the measurement of poverty as the cultures and ways of seeing generated by such values or beliefs are integral to physical and emotional well-being of human beings in general.

Q. On gender issues, why should it be that women more than men should be at a disadvantaged situation?

A. Firstly, it is necessary to make explicit the difference between sex and gender. Most are born female or male and, everyone is a sexed individual. By ‘sex’ biologists mean the specific genetic and hormonal make-up of individuals and their subsequent development of secondary physical characteristics, which place individuals in the category female (XX chromosome) or male (XY). Biological differences do not and cannot provide a universal basis for social definitions because women and men are products of social relations.

Maybe not differentiating between sex and gender has led to a wrong but common belief that gender is about women- to add women and stir’ is seen to be gender-sensitive and, also as gender mainstreaming-to study women by segregating them from the men, i.e. to ghettoise women. Another common misconception is the concept of sameness, or the notion of universal ‘woman’ or ‘man’.

There is no universal concept of man or woman in analysing gender. To be gender sensitive is not to study just women but also men, as men are the other half of gender. It is very easy to evaluate gender for example, from the vocabulary and daily activities of women and men and how responsibilities are assigned.

In Euro-American context there is a commitment to the sovereign nature of individuals, to the coherence and rationality of their beliefs, lifestyles-- and, to their right to self- determination. And, this constitutes how gender identities are defined.

In the Indian and African contexts-the imposition of generic individualism is not in harmony with local understandings. For example, to uphold brazen individualistic behaviour is ubinafsi – selfishness that does one harm, bringing disrepute and, almost certainly, social ostracism.

Culturally, men and women, girls and boys are conscious that they are composed of substances from kin and constituted by relationships which they need to respect and need to fulfill the requisite moral obligations or face censure. And this informs how men and women relate to each other in the constitution of various societies.

That is why Gender needs to be viewed as a process rather than a category – the doing of gender rather than the being of it–Gruntdvig, a rather wise Danish philosopher noted "Life is of a double nature, whole only in man and

Q. What about corruption which is so widespread here?

A. Once again like poverty there are many kinds of corruption – but we can discuss economic corruption. Much has been said about greed and there is a lot of moral censure against such corruption.

Rightly so, What needs also to be borne in mind is that in many developing countries it is pervasive at unexpected levels mainly because there is no social security, no safety net that ordinary men and women can rely upon to secure free housing, a maintenance allowance, a free good quality national health service or live with the assurance of a good education for their children – all of which constitute benefits for themselves or their families in hard times.

Thus, in northern Europe, such services make for less corruption- there is a price – high taxation. As a matter of fact provision of essential services free of cost could in fact increase the per capita income in the long run, although it could be expensive in the short run.

Perhaps provision of social security is something all developing countries need to take more seriously. It would ironically speaking, certainly reduce the expenses of the government, minimize the corruption and, vastly improve the quality of life.

Q. In Tanzania we have so much of rich folklore and traditional wisdom that is sadly neglected although the government has made efforts to promote them. Do you have any comments?

A. We need to place equal value to oral and written traditions as we find memory is central to knowing and learning in Oral traditions as indeed, songs and all forms of entertainment which are indeed, very important in written traditions as well. Often ethical and moral sentiments that can promote collective action and transform civil society come from such oral traditions.

Q. What do you feel about Tanzania?

A. Mimi napenda Tanzania na lugha ya Kiswahili. (I love Tanzania and Kiswahili language)


Tuesday, December 21, 2010

behind the scene of general election

Urais wa Kikwete utata mtupu


Na Saed Kubenea - Imechapwa 15 December 2010

MATOKEO ya uchaguzi mkuu wa rais, wabunge na madiwani wa Oktoba mwaka huu, yanazidi kuzua utata, MwanaHALISI limeelezwa.

Kungundulika kwa utata zaidi wa matokeo hayo kumefuatia kukamilika kwa kazi ya kukusanya, kuhesabu na kuhakiki matokeo ya uchaguzi iliyofanywa kwa ustadi mkubwa na viongozi wa ngazi ya juu wa Chama cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo (CHADEMA).

CHADEMA ilituma maofisa wake kukutana na mawakala wake kwenye vituo na kwenye ngazi ya jimbo kwa shabaha ya kutaka kujua usahihi wa kura ambazo chama hicho kilipata.

Taarifa za ndani ya chama hicho zinasema, maofisa walitumwa katika mikoa 24 ya Tanzania Bara na Visiwani kufanya kazi ya kukusanya matokeo.

Tayari ripoti ya matokeo hayo imewasilishwa katika kikao cha Kamati Kuu (CC) kilichofanyika Jumamosi iliyopita, jijini Dar es Salaam.

Inaelezwa kuwa matokeo hayo yanapishana kwa kiasi kikubwa na matokeo ambayo Tume ya Taifa ya Uchaguzi (NEC) imetangaza.

Kwa mfano, matokeo katika jimbo la Ilala, mkoni Dar es Salaam, NEC ilitangaza kuwa mgombea urais wa CHADEMA, Dk. Willibrod Slaa amepata kura 18,513, huku rais Kikwete akipata kura 35,910.

Lakini matokeo ambayo yamekusanywa na CHADEMA, kutoka mawakala wake, yanaonyesha kuwa katika jimbo hilo, rais Kikwete alipata kura 20,120, huku Dk. Slaa akipata kura 26,724.

Kuendelea kuibuka kwa utata kunakuja wiki sita baada ya NEC kumtangaza mgombea urais kupitia Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM), Jakaya Kikwete kuwa mshindi wa kiti hicho.

Katika uchaguzi huo, NEC ilimtangaza Dk. Willibrod Slaa, ambaye aligombea urais kupitia CHADEMA, kushika nafasi ya pili.

Katika jimbo la Vunjo, NEC ilimtangaza Kikwete kupata kura 27,649 huku Dk. Slaa akitangazwa kupata kura 22,442.

Lakini matokeo yaliyokusanywa na CHADEMA yanaonyesha kuwa Kikwete amepata kura 24,574 huku Dk. Slaa akipata kura 20,841. Katila jimbo la Geita, mkoani Mwanza, NEC ilitangaza kuwa rais Kikwete amepata kura 17,792 huku Dk. Slaa akiambulia kura 3,789.

Bali matokeo yaliyokusanywa na CHADEMA katika jimbo hilo, kwa mujibu wa nyaraka zilizokusanywa, yanaonyesha kuwa Rais Kikwete amepata kura 30,950, huku Dk. Slaa akiwa amepata kura 15,796.

Kwa mujibu wa taarifa za ndani ya kikao cha CC, wajumbe kwa kauli moja, walikubaliana kuwa kwa ushahidi uliokusanywa, kura zilizotangazwa na NEC hazikuwa zenyewe na matokeo hayakuwa sahihi wala halali.

“Baada ya yote hayo, wajumbe wamekubaliana kwa kauli moja, kwamba kura zilizotangazwa na NEC, si halali. Kilichotangazwa na NEC si matokeo halisi ya uchaguzi,” ameeleza mmoja wa viongozi wa chama hicho.

MwanaHALISI lilipomuuliza Dk. Slaa juu ya kuwapo kwa tofauti hiyo ya kura, haraka alisema, “Hatufanyi vitu kwa kubahatisha. Tulipowaambia kwamba matokeo yanayotangazwa na NEC ni ya kupikwa na usalama wa taifa, wengi hawakutuelewa.”

Alisema, “Tunajiandaa kuanika kila kitu hadharani. Tutazungumza na waandishi wa habari kama siyo kesho (jana), basi kesho kutwa (leo). Subiri, utapata kila kitu.” Alipotakiwa kueleza hatua zitakazochukuliwa na chama chake, baada ya kugundua kasoro hizo, Dk. Slaa alisema, “Hayo tutayaeleza baadaye.”

Alipong’ang’anizwa kusema ni hatua gani za haraka watachukua, alijibu kwa ufupi tu, “Tutapeleka kilio chetu kwa wananchi kwa njia ya amani.”

Akiongea kwa kujiamini, Dk. Slaa alisema, “Wewe unajua kuwa CHADEMA si chama cha vurugu. Hiki ni chama kinachoamini katika misingi ya amani na utulivu.”

Dk. Slaa amekuwa akisisitiza kwamba hayuko tayari kuingia ikulu wakati damu ya Watanzania inachuruzika. Alisema, “Tunataka kuhakikisha makosa haya hayarudiwi tena. Tunatambua serikali iliyopo hata kama haikuchaguliwa kwa njia ambazo ni mwafaka. Lakini kwa kuwa sheria zinazuia kupinga matokeo yaliyotangazwa, tutaendelea kulundika madai mengine ya msingi na kumtaka rais achukue hatua ya kuyatekeleza.” Mazungumzo kati ya Dk. Slaa na gazeti hili yalifanyika juzi Jumatatu.

Mtoa taarifa kwa gazeti hili amesema ushahidi ambao CHADEMA imeupata, ni pamoja na kile inachoita, “matokeo halisi ya uchaguzi” kutoka kituo hadi kituo.

Miongoni mwa matokeo ambayo yamekusanywa na ambayo yanatiliwa shaka, ni pamoja na matokeo ya urais katika jimbo la Kilombero, mkoani Morogoro na Mtoni, Zanzibar.

Katika jimbo la Kilombero, msimamizi wa uchaguzi, Pius G. Maffa alibatilisha matokeo saa chache baada ya kutangaza matokeo ya awali. Katika barua yake ya tarehe 4 Novemba 2010, yenye Kumb. Na. KDC/E30/8/VOL VI/155 yenye kichwa cha habari kisemacho, “…Majumuisho ya kura za urais,” Maffa anasema matokeo aliyotangaza awali hayakuwa halali.

Maffa katika barua yake hiyo aliyoituma kwa makatibu wa vyama vyote katika jimbo lake, anasisitiza “…pamoja na barua hii, naambatanisha fomu Na. 24A iliyojazwa upya kutokana na hitilafu za kiufundi zilizoonyeshwa na Tume ya Taifa ya Uchaguzi.”

Hitilafu ambazo Maffa anadai zilionekana baada ya matokeo hayo kupelekwa NEC, ni sehemu ya malalamiko ya CHADEMA; hata pale ambapo matokeo hayo yanaonekana kubadilishwa, bado yanapingana na ukweli halisi.

Katika jimbo la Mtoni, katika kituo cha kupigia kura kilichopachikwa jina la Mtoni School, NEC iliorodhesha wapigakura 350 kwa kila kituo kidogo cha kupigia.. Katika kituo hicho Na. 00025763, na ambacho kilikuwa na vituo vidogo A,B,C,D,E, NEC ilidai kuwa kila kituo kilikuwa na wapigakura 350 na kwamba ni wapigakura 200 waliojitokeza katika kila kituo.

“Yaani wewe unaweza kuamini kuwa wapigakura walioandikishwa kupigakura kwa kila kituo katika vituo hivyo vidogo ni 350, huku waliojitokeza kupigakura walikuwa 250? Watu hao ndiyo waliojitokeza kwa kila kituo? Hii inaonyesha kwamba hawa watu walijifungia na kutunga hesabu zao,” anaeleza mtoa taarifa wetu.

Anasema, “Matokeo haya ya uchaguzi, tayari yametuathiri. Mbali na mapungufu ya uhalali wa kiti cha urais, yameathiri idadi ya wabunge wa viti maalum na ruzuku ambayo chama kingepata.”

CHADEMA imeorodhesha madai makuu ambayo wanataka serikali iwe imeanza kuyatekeleza ndani ya kipindi cha miaka miwili kuanzia sasa. Madai hayo, kwa mujibu wa mtoa taarifa, ni pamoja na kuandikwa kwa katiba mpya; na kuundwa upya kwa tume ya taifa ya uchaguzi.

“Kwanza, tunataka serikali iandae mchakato wa kupatikana katiba mpya. Lengo ni kupatikana katiba mpya kabla ya uchaguzi mwaka 2015,” ameeleza mtoa taarifa.

Pili, “Tunataka serikali iunde upya tume ya ya taifa ya uchaguzi na tatu, serikali ikubali kuunda tume huru ya kuchunguza wizi na upotevu wa kura.”

Gazeti toleo na. 219



Viongozi wauziana mashangingi kwa 300,000/-

• Yamo magari ya wahisani yaliyotolewa kama msaada

na Betty Kangonga

WAKATI serikali ikitamba kwamba imejipanga kudhibiti matumizi, baadhi ya vigogo katika wizara na idara mbalimbali wamekuwa wakiuziwa mashangingi ya serikali kwa bei ya sh 300,000 hadi sh milioni mbili, Tanzania Daima Jumatano limebaini!

Uchunguzi uliofanywa na gazeti hili kwa siku kadhaa sasa umebaini magari yaliyouzwa ni yale yaliyokuwa yakitumika kwa miradi ya DFP na ya wizara yaliyotembea kwa zaidi ya kilomita 150,000.

Kwa mujibu wa uchunguzi huo, moja ya wizara ambayo magari yake yameuzwa kwa bei ya kutupwa ni Wizara ya Fedha na Uchumi na majina ya vigogo waliouziwa kwa sasa yamehifadhiwa.

Vyanzo vya habari vilisema magari yaliyouzwa katika wizara hiyo ni yale ya DFP yaliyotolewa na Jumuiya ya Umoja wa Nchi za Ulaya (EU).

Habari za uhakika kutoka wizara hiyo zinasema magari hayo yamenunuliwa na vigogo wa ndani na nje ya wizara hiyo kwa sh 300,000.

“Magari yote yameuzwa kwa bei ya kutupwa, mimi bosi wangu kanunua moja kwa sh 300,000 eti lilikuwa na tatizo la pump na mengine yaliuzwa kwa sh 500,000 yakiwa mazuri kabisa,” alisema mmoja wa watumishi wa wizara hiyo ambaye aliomba jina lake lihifadhiwe.

Mtoaji habari hizo alisema ameamua kupasua bomu hilo kwani anakerwa kuona jinsi serikali inavyoliwa na kuwanufaisha wachache wakati wapo vigogo waliojinunulia zaidi ya magari matatu ya serikali na mengine kuwapa nyumba ndogo zao.

“Wengine tunaagiza magari madogo aina ya Vitz kwa zaidi ya sh milioni sita, lakini shangingi la serikali linauzwa kwa sh 300,000 au 500,000, hii inauma sana,” alisema.

Wakati magari ya Wizara ya Fedha na Uchumi inayooongozwa na Mustafa Mkullo yakiuzwa kwa bei hiyo, magari mengine yaliyouzwa kwa bei chee ni ya Ikulu aina ya Benz, yaliyokuwa yakitumika kwenye misafara ya Rais mstaafu wa Awamu ya Tatu, Benjamin Mkapa.

Magari hayo ambayo yanadaiwa kutolewa msaada na serikali ya Cuba, yalibadilishwa na Rais Jakaya Kikwete alipoingia Ikulu na kupata mengine aina ya BMW ambayo pia yalitolewa msaada kwa Tanzania.

Vyanzo vyetu vya habari vilisema kibaya zaidi, baadhi ya magari hayo, yamenunuliwa kwa mkopo na vigogo hao kwa sh milioni mbili.

“Tatizo la yale magari wanasema ni mafuta. Yanakula mafuta vibaya sana, lakini mengine yameuzwa kwa sh milioni mbili na ukitaka naweza kukuelekeza uende mahali linapoegeshwa kalipige picha,” kilisema chanzo chetu kingine cha habari.

Akizungumza na Tanzania Daima Jumatano, Mkurugenzi wa Kitengo cha Uhakiki wa Mali za Umma, Eziera Msanya, alikiri kuwa tatizo la vigogo kujinunulia magari kwa bei poa bila kufuata taratibu lipo na idara yake ambayo ni mpya imejipanga kudhibiti hali hiyo.

Mbali ya kudhibiti tabia ya watendaji kujinunulia magari, Msanya alisema kitengo chake pia kimejipanga kudhibiti matumizi ya magari hayo kwani wapo wanaoyatumia kwa shughuli binafsi kama hata kuyaegesha kwenye vilabu vya starehe.

Alisema utaratibu wa magari ya serikali au mali zozote zile unapaswa kuhakikiwa na kitengo chake na wakiridhika na uhakiki huo na kupanga bei, wanapaswa kutangaza uuzaji wa mali hizo katika mnada wa wazi.

Kabla ya uuzaji wa mali hizo, kitengo chake kinapaswa kupata kibali cha Katibu Mkuu Utumishi ili kuuza mali hizo kwa taratibu zilizowekwa.

“Lakini badala yake watu hawafuati taratibu, siasa zimeingia kati, mtu anaona gari hili linataka kuuzwa, anamwendea waziri husika na kuomba auziwe gari, jambo ambalo ni kinyume kabisa na utaratibu,” alisema Msanya.

Alisema kitengo chake kiko chini ya Wizara ya Fedha na ndicho chenye dhamana ya kuhakiki mali za umma na kutoa mapendekezo ya kuuzwa sambamba na bei zake.

“Unajua hili swala liko kisiasa zaidi na sisi kama ofisi ya uhakiki wa mali za serikali ikitoa maelekezo, hayatekelezwi na hapo ndipo wanapouziana kwa bei poa. Hata hivyo Msanya alilitaka gazeti hili kwenda Wizara ya Uchimi na Fedha kupata ufafanuzi wa magari ya DFP yaliyouzwa hivi karibuni kwa bei ya kutupwa.

Tanzania Daima Jumatano ilipofika wizarani, ilikutana na ofisa habari msaidizi wa wizara hiyo, Ramadhan Mohamed, ambaye alimtaka mwandishi kuacha maswali ili yajibiwe na wahusika kwani alikiri kuwa hakuwa na uwezo wa kuyajibu.

Hata baada ya kuacha maswali hayo, maafisa wa wizarani hapo, akiwemo Waziri Mkulo na Naibu Katibu Mkuu wake, John Haule, walikutana kwa dharula kwa zaidi ya saa tatu ili kutolea ufafanuzi suala hilo.

Akizungumzia uuzwaji wa magari hayo kwa vigogo, Haule alisema upo utaratibu unaotumika katika kuuzia vigogo magari hayo ikiwemo kujua muda wa mkataba wa magari hayo.

Alisema baada ya kupata kibali cha kuuza magari toka mamlaka husika, hupeleka kibali hicho katika ofisi ya Katibu Mkuu Utumishi na kupata kibali cha kuuza magari hayo.

“Ili gari la serikali liuzwe, linapaswa liwe limetembea kilometa kati ya 150,000 hadi 200,000 na lazima liwe limetumika ndani ya miaka mitano, kwa hiyo kama yapo yaliyouzwa basi yalikuwa yameshatumika kwa mujibu wa utaratibu wa magari ya Serikali.

Vigogo walikula rushwa ununuzi wa rada Send to a friend

Tuesday, 21 December 2010 21:21



Waandishi Wetu

KESI ya ufisadi katika ununuzi wa rada jana ilitolewa huku kwa kufunika suala la rushwa baada ya Mahakama ya Hakimu Mkazi ya Southwark Crown ya jijini London, Uingereza kuipiga faini ya Pauni 500,000 za Kiingereza (sawa na Sh1.1 bilioni za Tanzania) kampuni ya BAE System kwa kushindwa kutunza taarifa za malipo ya mshauri wao wa kiufundi ambaye ni Mtanzania.

Hukumu hiyo imetolewa siku moja baada ya Jaji David Michael Bean kutilia shaka malipo ya dola 12.4 milioni kwa mfanyabiashara wa Kitanzania, Shailesh Vithlani ambaye alikuwa wakala wa BAE, akisema kuwa fedha hizo zilitumika kuwapa rushwa viongozi wa serikali ya Tanzania ili wakubali mpango huo wa kununua rada kwa bei ya juu.

Jaji Bean alitishia kutotoa hukumu inayoidhinisha makubaliano yanayoitaka BAE System ilipishwe faini hiyo, akitaka maelezo ya malipo hayo kwa kuwa alisema inaonekana kuwa Vithlani angeweza kutumia fedha hizo kumrubuni mtu yeyote ili mradi apewe zabuni hiyo ya kununua rada kwa dola 40 milioni za Kimarekani.

Lakini Jaji Bean alijikuta akilazimika kuidhinisha hukumu hiyo baada ya BAE System kufikia makubaliano na kitengo cha uchunguzi wa makosa makubwa cha Uingereza, SFO, kuwa kampuni hiyo ikiri kutotunza taarifa za malipo hayo ya siri katika mpango wa ununuzi wa rada ili neno rushwa lisihusishwe kwenye kosa hilo.

BAE System ilikanusha kutumia rushwa katika kuishawishi serikali ya Tanzania kununua rada hiyo kwa bei ya juu na SFO haijaweka neno rushwa kwenye mashtaka yake dhidi ya kampuni hiyo ya Kiingereza, lakini Jaji Bean nusura akwamishe njama hizo baada ya kuhoji sababu za BAE kutoa fedha hizo nyingi kwa Vithlani.

"Siweni kuidhinisha makubaliano haya (baina ya SFO na BAE) hadi nijue malengo ya matumizi ya dola 12.4 za Kimarekani kwa mfanyabiashara wa Tanzania kwa sababu inaonekana kuwa fedha zilikuwa nyingi mno kiasi kwamba angeweza kulipalipa chochote kwa kwa yeyote ambaye angeona ni muhimu katika kufanikisha kushinda zabuni ya dola 40 milioni za Kimarekani," alisema Jaji Bean.

"BAE haikutaka kujua ni kiasi gani cha fedha kingelipwa na kwa nani. Usisikie uovu, usiseme uovu na mambo mengine."

Jaji huyo alisema kuwa kwa maana hiyo kiasi cha fedha alicholipwa Vithlani kingetolewa kwa viongozi wa serikali ili kufanikisha mpango huo.

Lakini katika hukumu ya jana, Jaji Bean pia alikubaliana na maafikiano hayo ya SFO na BAE na kuitaka kampuni hiyo kuilipa Tanzania paundi za 30 milioni za Kiingereza (sawa na Sh63 bilioni) na paundi 225,000 (sawa na Sh472 milioni) za gharama ya kuendesha kesi hiyo.

Kampuni ya BAE ilitakiwa kulipa faini ya Paundi 500,000 kwa kushindwa kuweka taarifa sahihi za malipo ya ununuzi wa rada hiyo katika biashara iliyofanyika mwaka 2007.

Kampuni ya BAE Systems ilimteua raia wa Tanzania Shailesh Vithlani kuwa wakala wa kuisadia kupata zabuni ya kuiuzia Tanzania hiyo ambayo bei yake ilizua gumzo.

Kwa kazi hiyo Vithlani alilipwa Dola za Marekani 12.4 milioni kupitia kampuni moja iliyosajiliwa katika visiwa vya British Virgin vilivyo barani Amerika ya Kusini.

Juzi katika utetezi wake BAE Systems ilisema ilimlipa Vithlani fedha hizo kwa kazi aliyoifanya kuishawishi Tanzania inunue bidhaa hiyo kutoka kwenye kampuni hiyo.

“Kutokana na mazingira halisi ya uuzaji rada kutofuata utaratibu na kukiri kwenu makosa, mahakama inaiamuru BAE kulipa faini ya chinin lakini iilipe Tanzania fedha kwa kiwango cha juu,’’ alisema Jaji Bean.

Wakati kesi hiyo ikiendelea juzi, mjadala mkubwa baina ya upande wa mashtaka na utetezi ulikuwa juu ya matumizi ya fedha hizo zilizolipwa kisiri kwa Vithlani.

Hata hivyo, upande wa utetezi ulisimama imara kupinga kuwa haukufanya malipo yoyote kifisadi ili kufanikisha kupata zabuni hiyo.

Jana Victor Temple wa SFO alliambia mahakama hiyo kuwa BAE imeweka mfumo wa siri na wa wazi wa mawakala watakaofanikishia kampuni hiyo kupata zabuni mbalimbali za kuuza bidhaa zake.

“Kupitia mfumo wa wazi, BAE inafanya kazi zake kwa wazi na wawakilishi wa ofisi hiyo, lakini kwa siri wakala wake hufanya kazi kwa usiri wa hali ya juu kufanikisha malengo yao ya kibiashara,” alisema.

Alisema mwenyekiti wa BAE, Richard Evans alithibitisha kumtumia mfanyabiashara Vithlani katika kufanikisha kampuni hiyo kushinda zabuni ya ununuzi wa rada.

“Uthibitisho huo pia ulitolewa na mjumbe wa bodi ya kampuni hiyo, Mike Turner ambaye baadaye alikuja kuwa mtendaji mkuu wa BAE,” alisema.

Jaji alisema maelezo ya hayo ya utetezi ni tata katika kesi hiyo huku akirudia kumuuliza wakili wa SFO na BAE kuhusu matumizi ya dola 12.4 milioni alizolipwa Vithlani.

Alisema: “Mnapaswa kuonyesha nini kilitokea. Kama hakukuwa na fedha iliyotumika kifisadi, kwa nini ni asilimia 97 ya malipo hayo yalilipwa kupitia kampuni ya BVI inayomilikiwa na kampuni ya BAE kwa kampuni nyingine inayomilikiwa na Vithlani," alihoji.

Wakati Temple alisema kwamba Vithlani aliajiriwa kwa ajili kushawishi zabuni kwa kampuni BAE, jaji huyo alihoji kwa nini mfanyabiashara alilipwa kiasi kikubwa cha fedha?

Temple aliongeza kuwa “kushawishi ni halali, lakini kushawishi ni kitu kingine na ufisadi ni kingine pia".

Habari hii imeandaliwa na Sadick Mtulya na Salim Said kwa msaada wa mashirika ya habari

Hoseah amlipua Kikwete

• Asema anaogopa kushughulikia ufisadi wa vigogo

na Edward Kinabo

MTANDAO wa Wikileaks wa Marekani umeibua siri nzito kuhusu uwezo na nia ya Rais Jakaya Kikwete katika kushughulikia ufisadi, ukidai kuwa ndiye anayekwamisha kushtakiwa kwa baadhi ya vigogo serikalini wanaotuhumiwa kuhusika katika rushwa kubwa nchini.

Katika taarifa hiyo iliyochapishwa jana na gazeti la The Guardian la Uingereza, likinuu taarifa za kibalozi za Marekani zilizoanikwa na Wikileaks, lilisema Mkurugenzi wa Taasisi ya Kuzuia na Kupambana na Rushwa (TAKUKURU), Dk. Edward Hosea, alimweleza mwanadiplomasia mmoja wa Kimarekani kwamba ugumu wa kupambana na ufisadi Tanzania unaanzia Ikulu.

Mtandao huo ulinukuu baadhi ya maelezo ya faragha kuhusu rushwa aliyoyatoa Dk. Hosea kwa mwanadiplomasia wa Kimarekani aitwaye Purnell Delly, walipokutana mwezi Julai mwaka 2007, Dar es Salaam.

Likinukuu mtandao huo, The Guardian liliandika, “Dk. Hosea alidokeza kuwa Rais Kikwete hafurahishwi na sheria kuchukua mkondo wake dhidi ya ufisadi ambao unaweza kuwatia hatiani vigogo wa ngazi za juu serikalini…. Hataki kuweka msingi wa kumwandama kiongozi yeyote miongoni mwa watangulizi wake (wastaafu).”

Linasema mwanadiplomasia huyo alisema: “Hosea alikuwa akisisitiza kwamba akiamua kuwa na makali, usalama wake binafsi utakuwa hatarini…anadai anaamini maisha yake yako hatarini, kwani amekuwa akipokea ujumbe wa vitisho kwa simu na barua na amekuwa akikumbushwa kila siku kwamba anapambana na ‘watu matajiri na wenye nguvu.’”

Kwa mujibu wa taarifa hiyo, Dk. Hosea alitoa maelezo yanayokatisha tamaa juu ya mustakabali wa mapambano dhidi ya ufisadi nchini na ugumu uliopo katika kuwashtaki watuhumiwa wa ufisadi mkubwa.

“Alituambia bila kufafanua... kwamba kesi zinazomhusu waziri mkuu au rais haziwezi kujadiliwa kabisa,” kilisema chombo hicho na kisha kufafanua: “Rais Kikwete hataki kumshughulikia mtangulizi wake yeyote mwenye tuhuma zinazostahili kufikishwa mahakamani.”

Dk. Hoseah anadaiwa kumueleza mwanadiplomasia huyo jinsi rushwa ilivyokithiri katika Benki Kuu ya Tanzania na visiwani Zanzibar, lakini akadokeza ugumu wa kuishughulikia kwa sababu tu wahusika wakuu ni watu ambao “hawahusiki”.

Hoseah alidokeza kuwa mambo yakiwa mabaya angeweza hata kukimbia nchi, kwa mujibu wa taarifa hiyo ikimnukuu mwanadiplomasia huyo wa Marekani.

“Ukihudhuria kwenye vikao vya juu (vya ndani), watu wanataka ujisikie kuwa wao ndio wamekuweka hapo ulipo. Wakiona huenendi na yale wanayotaka wao, basi hapo unakuwa katika hatari,” ilisema sehemu nyingine ya taarifa hiyo ikinukuu maelezo ya Dk. Hoseah.

Aidha, katika mazungumzo yao, Dk. Hoseah alimpa matumaini mwanadiplomasia huyo kwamba TAKUKURU ingeweza kuwachukulia hatua za kisheria watuhumiwa wote waliohusika katika kile alichokiita ‘dili chafu’ ya rushwa katika ununuzi wa rada ya kijeshi kutoka kampuni ya BAE ya Uingereza, hatua ambayo hata hivyo ilionekana isingeweza kutekelezwa na taasisi hiyo.

Wachambuzi wa mambo wanasema kauli hiyo ya Dk. Hoseah ilitokana na ukweli kwamba tayari wapelelezi wa Taasisi ya Uchunguzi wa Makosa ya Jinai ya Uingereza (SFO) walikuwa wameshampelekea faili lote la watuhumiwa likiwa na ushahidi jambo ambalo lingeweza kumuepusha na hatari ambayo ingeweza kumfika kama uchunguzi huo ungefanywa na TAKUKURU yake.

Katika kashfa hiyo, serikali ya Tanzania inadaiwa kununua rada ya kuongozea ndege za kiraia na za kivita kutoka kampuni ya BAE System ya Uingereza kwa gharama kubwa ya dola 40 milioni, huku taarifa za uchunguzi kutoka SFO na vyanzo mbalimbali zikionyesha kuwa ununuzi huo haukuwa wa lazima na uligubikwa na rushwa.

Kashfa ya rada ilitendeka mwaka 1999, katika mazingira yaliyogubikwa na rushwa kwa watendaji serikalini ili waweze kulainisha watoa maamuzi. Kwa mujibu wa taarifa za maelezo ya Dk. Hoseah kwa mwanadiplomasia huyo, watuhumiwa zaidi wa rushwa ya rada wapo katika Wizara ya Ulinzi na jeshini.

“Dk. Hoseah aliliita suala la rada kuwa ni dili chafu na kusema inawahusu maofisa wa Wizara ya Ulinzi na vigogo wawili au mmoja wa jeshi (hawakutajwa majina),” ilieleza taarifa hiyo.

Kesi ya rada iliendelea kusikilizwa jana katika Mahakama ya Hakimu Mkazi jijini London, Uingereza.

Monday, December 20, 2010

Master of Arts in Peace and Justice Studies

Master of Arts in Peace and Justice Studies

Joan B Kroc School of Peace Studies

University of San Diego

The Master of Arts in Peace and Justice Studies is an interdisciplinary program emphasizing peace as human development. The goals of the Program are: 1) to produce graduates who are capable of relating disciplinary and cross-disciplinary theories of peace and justice to real world problem-solving involving regional and international conflict; 2) to foster scholarly agendas that examine the dynamics of justice and peacebuilding; and, 3) to facilitate faculty and student interaction and development across disciplines and academic units at USD, as well as in the community. Students in the prgoram can benefit from the School of Peace Studies’ two institutes: the Joan B. Kroc Institute for Peace & Justice and the Trans-Border Institute.


Master of Arts in Peace and Justice Studies

Entrance Semesters: Fall (August)

Application Deadline: February 15, 2011 (2011/2012 academic year)

Minimum Grade Point Average: 3.00 (4.00 scale) in all undergraduate course work

Standardized Admission Test: Graduate Record Examination* (GRE) General Test only

Required Course Work: None

Required Licenses/Credentials: None

Additional Requirements: 3 Letters of Recommendation


Personal Statement

TOEFL exam for international students

* may be waived at the discretion of the Program Director

Application Completion - Application Packet available from USD’s Office of Graduate Admissions

On your application indicate if you are applying for the 12-month or 17-month track:

12-month track - A minimum of three years experience relevant to the field of peace and justice

17-month track - Additional Requirements : None

Financial Aid and Tuition

All students accepted into the Peace and Justice Studies Program are eligible to be considered for the Gandhi Fellowships and the Joan B. Kroc Scholarships in Peace and Justice Studies.

Application for program admission constitutes application for these fellowships and scholarships.

Awards are determined by faculty committee.

Students selected for Gandhi Fellowships will receive a minimum of $11,500 applied to tuition.

Gandhi Fellows will be involved in various activities in the Joan B. Kroc Institute for Peace & Justice and the Trans-Border Institute in collaboration with USD faculty and Institute officials.

The Gandhi Fellowships and other financial aid are offered to permit full-time study

Contact Information

For more information

On the Master's Program - Contact: On how to apply - Visit Graduate Admissions:

Lee Ann Otto, Ph.D.

Associate Dean, Joan B. Kroc School of Peace Studies

University of San Diego

5998 Alcala Park

San Diego, CA 92110


Phone: (619) 260-7921

Fax: (619) 849-8109


Admissions office located in Serra Hall, Room 202.

Hours: Monday through Friday 8:00am – 5:00pm.

Contact and mailing information:

University of San Diego

Office of Graduate Admissions

5998 Alcala Park

San Diego , CA 92110

Phone: (619) 260-4524

Fax: (619) 260-4158


H.J. Heinz Company Foundation Fellowship 2010-11 Global Studies Center at the University Center for International Studies, University of Pittsburgh, USA

H.J. Heinz Company Foundation Fellowship 2010-11 Global Studies Center at the University Center for International Studies, University of Pittsburgh, USA

The Global Studies Center at the University of Pittsburgh requests applications for the H. J. Heinz Company Foundation Fellowship Program. The program begins August 1, 2011 and ends July 31, 2012. The Heinz Fellowship was established in 1982 by an endowment from the H. J. Heinz Company Foundation to the University of Pittsburgh’s University Center for International Studies. The Fellowship provides for one year of practical, professional, and non-degree educational experiences through the University of Pittsburgh in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. For this round, Heinz Fellowships will be granted to two individuals from developing countries who demonstrate potential as future leaders in the government, non-profit, or private sectors. The goal is to improve, early in a career, the Fellows’ capacity to contribute to the development of their country and to enhance their understanding of the United States. This is accomplished through a year of auditing selected courses and participating in practical professional activities while based in Pittsburgh. Courses taken as part of the Heinz Fellowship do not earn credit towards an academic degree.


The competition for a Heinz Fellowship is open to men and women from developing countries whose record of accomplishment early in their career indicates strong potential for leadership and achievement in business, government, public services, or other relevant professions.

1. Applicants must have completed a university degree.

2. Applicants must be proficient in speaking, reading and writing English.

3. Preference will be given to those applicants at the early or mid-stages of their career.

4. The fellowship is intended for individuals in the practitioner/policy domains. It is not awarded for basic academic research, academic sabbaticals, nor for medical research.

5. Two candidates will be chosen each year. One fellowship will be awarded to a candidate from either China, India, or Indonesia who specializes in public health and the other applicant should be working in one of the following:

a. Governance: Management and administration of public and nonprofit agencies; growth and sustainable development of urban metropolitan regions throughout the world; economic and social development of newly independent and developing states; emerging dynamics that are shaping today's international political economy; threats to and issues in international security

b. Public Health: Local and national approaches towards infectious diseases; development of health services; family planning; maternal and child health; community health; environmental health, epidemiology

c. Business: finance; marketing; organizational behavior & human resources management; strategy; environment, & organizations

d. Education: administrative and policy studies

e. Law: development of the legal system; the extension and institutionalization of fundamental rights

f. Engineering: bioengineering; sustainability; nanoscience and engineering; energy; manufacturing

How to Apply

Applicants for this non-degree program should complete a Heinz Fellowship Program Application Form. If this form was not enclosed with this announcement, you may obtain it on the Internet at or e-mailing to the Heinz Fellowship Program: Applications may be sent electronically or mailed. Complete applications must be received by March 1, 2011. Late or incomplete application packages will not be considered.

1. Application (including Personal Statement and Statement of Proposed Fellowship Activities), submitted electronically or mailed by applicant

2. English Language Report, submitted electronically or mailed by professional English language teacher or U.S. Embassy official (see application instructions)

3. Three Letters of Reference, submitted electronically or mailed by each professional reference (see application instructions)


March 1, 2011 Deadline for receipt of complete Fellowship application package

April 15, 2011 Winners notified

April 30, 2011 Winners announced on webpage

August 1, 2011 Fellow begins program at the University of Pittsburgh

July 31, 2012 End of Fellowship

Program at the University

Within the first month of arrival, the fellow will develop and submit a plan of work which identifies the ways and means of sharpening existing professional expertise during the fellowship residency. This plan will be followed up by a progress report at the end of the first semester, and a final report at the end of the fellowship. Typically, fellows audit courses within the University and participate in internships in Pittsburgh or elsewhere in the United States. The University of Pittsburgh, one of the leading research universities in the United States, encompasses 14 professional schools, 28 departments in the arts, social and natural sciences, 3,700 faculty members, 35,000 students, and library holdings of over 3.5 million volumes. The University is located in an urban center of cultural, ethnic, and racial diversity. Fellows will be able to draw on these resources and will be aided by an academic mentor.

During the residency, the fellow is expected to give at least one presentation on a subject related to his or her professional background to members of the University. In addition, the fellow is strongly encouraged to participate in community outreach activities in Pittsburgh, for example, by lecturing about his or her home country to an audience of high school students or interested adults.

Certificate of Completion

A final report is required. Fellows will receive a Program Certificate from UCIS. This is a non-degree program. Courses are audited on an informal basis and do not earn credit towards an academic degree.

Financial Information

Fellows will receive a living stipend of $18,000 (paid out in monthly installments), health insurance, round-trip transportation to and from Pittsburgh, and a $2,000 program and professional activities fund. Please note that if the fellow comes from a country which does not have a tax treaty with the U.S., the fellow must pay U.S. taxes amounting to 14% of the stipend.


No transportation, living or insurance funds are provided for dependents. The fellowship does not include allowances or special services for dependents whether or not they accompany the fellow. Applicants will be required, as a condition of the grant, to submit a statement of their ability to finance the transportation and maintenance expenses for dependents. Please note that U.S. government visa restrictions make employment opportunities for dependents rare.

Early Terminations

Acceptance of a grant by a candidate constitutes an agreement between the grantee and the University. It is expected that, barring unforeseen emergencies, grantees will remain for the full tenure of the award. A grantee who leaves the U.S. or terminates the grant at a date earlier than that specified in the grant authorization, without consent of the University, will be required to reimburse the University for any expenditures made on his or her behalf.


H. J. Heinz Company Foundation Fellowship Program,

Global Studies Center, University Center for International Studies (UCIS),

University of Pittsburgh,

4101 Posvar Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 USA

Fax: +412-624-4672 – Phone: +412-624-2918


Home page:

schlolarship in Belgium

Dear Brothers and sisters,
here is another opportunity to study masters and PhD abroad. lets use the opportunity to shape our academic arena.
The French-language universities of Belgium will award 150 scholarships and 70 training grants in 2011-2012 to applicants from developing countries through Belgium’s University Commission for Development

Study Subject: Aquaculture, tropical animal and plant resources, environmental management, management of natural hazards, environment and communities, innovations in family farming, and others

Level: Masters, PhD

Scholarship Description:You will find on this site a list of international courses and training programmes for which there is a possibility of scholarship and the modalities of introduction of an application file as well as the rules of selection. These rules define the conformity of the files and therefore are very important.


1. Only applicants originating in developing countries, qualify for selection. To be eligible, candidates must reside and work in their country at the time of the introduction of the file.

2. Only the nationals of the following countries are authorized to postulate with our Scholarships :

South Africa, Algeria, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, China, Colombia, Ivory Coast, Cuba, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Guinea, Haïti, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Madagascar, Mali, Morocco, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Niger, Uganda, Peru, Philippines, Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, El Salvador, Senegal, Suriname, Tanzania, Palestinian territories, Vietnam, Zambia, Zimbabwe

3. At the beginning of the programme, candidates must be less than 40 years old for courses, and less than 45 years old for training programmes.

4. Candidates must be holders of a degree that is comparable to a Belgian University graduate degree (“licence”). However, for certain programmes different rules of admissibility may be defined, and these are specified hereafter, where appropriate.

5. Candidates must show professional experience of at least two years upon termination of their studies. Where candidates are holders of a postgraduate degree delivered by an university of an industrial country, they must show professional experience of at least three years upon termination of their studies.

6. Candidates must have a good knowledge of written and spoken French; for programmes organised in another language, good knowledge, in writing and speaking, of this language, is required. Moreover, the candidate will be asked to commit himself to study French in order to be able to participate in daily life in Belgium.

7. Candidates are not allowed to apply for more than one programme.

Scholarship Application Deadline: 14 February 2011

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